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Social Democracy of America

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Social Democracy of America

Social Democracy of America
Founded June 7, 1897 (June 7, 1897)
Dissolved January 10, 1913 (January 10, 1913)
Preceded by Brotherhood of the Cooperative Commonwealth
Succeeded by Social Democratic Party and Cooperative Brotherhood
Ideology Social Democratic / Cooperative
Politics of the United States
Political parties
Elections

The Social Democracy of America (SDA), later known as the Cooperative Brotherhood, was a short lived party in the United States that sought to combine the planting of an Socialist Party of America and the Burley, Washington cooperative socialist colony.

Organizational history

Formation

After being jailed in the aftermath of the 1894 Pullman strike, [1]

Among the elements that joined the ARU and BCC in forming the new party was a faction of independent Midwestern socialists centered around Milwaukee Vorwarts.[2] This tendency emphasized electoral socialism, especially in local politics, in order to appeal to workers on issues of immediate, day-to-day importance. Prominent "American" adherents to this faction included Seymour Stedman and Frederic Heath.[3]

This 1897 ad by The Social Democracy of America emphasizes that "one of the States of the Union, to be hereafter determined, shall be selected for concentration of our members and the introduction of cooperative industry."

While the SDA was being organized, there was some factional trouble within the older Socialist Labor Party. Some elements within the SLPs Jewish membership, concentrated in Manhattans Lower East Side, had objected to the party's dual unionism policy. As a consequence the Party's Yiddish language papers, the Dos Abend Blatt and Arbeter-Zeitung were put under direct party control.[4] When the dissidents responded by launching the Jewish Daily Forward and forming "Press Clubs" to influence party activity among Jewish members, the Party leadership expelled the fourth, fifth and twelfth assembly district branches on July 4. The expelled branches held a convention July 31 to August 2, at which they decided to affiliate with the Social Democracy of America.[5][6] Among the prominent members of this faction were Abraham Cahan, Meyer London, Isaac Hourwich, Morris Winchevsky, Michael Zametkin, Max Pine and Louis F. Miller.[7]

In [9] This contingent was bolstered in August 1897 when the SDA was joined by the remnants of the Social Democratic Federation, a predominantly German-language group headed by Wilhelm Rosenberg which had split off the SLP in 1889.[10]

From the very beginning there were divisions in the group between those who saw its main purpose as winning office and introducing socialistic legislation and those influenced by the BCC idea of trying to "socialize" a western state by planting socialist colonies there and eventually taking over its government. Nevertheless, a three man colonization commission criss crossed the country visiting possible sites, especially in Colorado and Tennessee.[11]

At the opening of the SDAs convention on June 7, 1898, there was already a great deal of tension between the colonizationists and political actionists, the latter group accusing the former of trying to "pack" the convention with delegates from recently formed "paper branches" in the Chicago area. The divisions came to a head on June 10, when the convention heard the reports of its platform committee. The majority report, presented by Victor Berger and Margaret Haile, recommended the abandonment of the colonization scheme. The minority report written by John F. Lloyd, but read to the convention by J.S. Ingalls, favored the two pronged approach adopted a year earlier. The platform question caused long and bitter debate, lasting until 2 AM the next morning when a roll call vote showed 53 for the colonization platform and 37 against. With the defeat of the political action platform, Isaac Hourwich led a walk out of the minority to Revere House across the street. There the dissidents founded the Social Democratic Party of America, which in 1901 would merge with other groups to become the Socialist Party of America.[12][13]

Burley colony

The majority, however, attempted to carry out their colonization scheme. They published three more issues of the Social Democrat, but financial difficulties made them halt the fourth issue while in type. Fearing that the organization might go under if a colony was not established immediately, they authorized Cyrus Field Willard to locate a colony and "do what in his judgment appeared the right thing to do". Willard went to Seattle to consult with SDA member J.B. Fowler, who pointed out the good harbors on southern Puget Sound. Here they found Henry W. Stein, who was sympathetic to them politically and had just become the executor of some land in rural Kitsap County that was open for sale. In September 1898 the SDA re-incorporated in Seattle as the Co-Operative Brotherhood and on October 18 they purchased 260 acres (1.1 km2) for $6,000. The first colonists arrived on October 20, 1898.[14]

While never reaching more than about 120 inhabitants, the colony thrived for a few years. Originally named "Brotherhood", the inhabitants gradually began to refer to it as "Burley" after the nearby Burley creek. A colony scrip was created that included a $1 denomination for an eight hour work day and smaller units, called minims, for minutes worker over or less than six hours.[15] "Circle City" was the informal name of a group of buildings near the water.[16] The colony subsisted on agriculture, fishing and logging. They also made income selling cigars, jam, subscriptions of its magazines and membership in the B.C. It also rented out use of its mill, and rooms in its "Commonwealth Hotel" for visitors.[17]

Initially led by Willard, he left in 1899 to join a Theosophist colony in Point Loma, California. Later the Brotherhood was governed by a twelve man board of trustees who were elected by mail vote each December for four year staggered terms. A board of directors managed the affairs of the colony itself, and was elected every January.[18] Members of the Co-operative Brotherhood who were not residents of the colony organized in local chapters called Temples of the Knights of the Brotherhood, in places like Chicago..

Its newspaper, the Co-operater stayed in publication from December 1898 to June 1906. Originally an 8 page weekly, it changed to a 32 page monthly in 1902 and to a 16 page magazine in October 1903.[19]

The colony went into decline in the late 1900s. In December 1904 some members re-incorporated into the Burley [20]

Footnotes

  1. ^ Charles Pierce LeWarne, Utopias on Puget Sound 1885-1915. Seattle: University of Washington Press, pg. 129-130.
  2. ^ Frederic Heath (ed.), Social Democracy Red Book Terre Haute: Debs Publishing Co., pg. 55.
  3. ^ Howard Quint The Forging of American Socialism. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, pp. 285-288
  4. ^ Quint, The Forging of American Socialism, pp. 171-173.
  5. ^ Quint, The Forging of American Socialism, pp. 300-301.
  6. ^ Socialist Labor Party, Proceedings of the Tenth National Convention of the Socialist Labor Party held in New York City June 2 to June 8, 1900. New York: New York Labor News Co., pg. 11.
  7. ^ Quint, The Forging of American Socialism, pg. 301.
  8. ^ Quint, The Forging of American Socialism, pg. 169-179.
  9. ^ Socialist Labor Party Proceedings of the Tenth National Convention of the Socialist Labor Part, pp. 10-11.
  10. ^ Howard Quint The Forging of American Socialism, pp. 299-300.
  11. ^ Report of the Colonization Commission to the First Annual Convention of the Social Democracy of America: Delivered June 9, 1898.
  12. ^ LeWarne, Utopias on Puget Sound 1885-1915, pp. 134-135.
  13. ^ The Convention: A Notable Gathering of the People Representing Socialism
  14. ^ LeWarne, Utopias on Puget Sound 1885-1915, pg. 136-138.
  15. ^ LeWarne Utopias on Puget Sound 1885-1915, pp. 140.
  16. ^ LeWarne Utopias on Puget Sound 1885-1915, pg. 154.
  17. ^ LeWarne Utopias on Puget Sound 1885-1915, pp. 150 passim.
  18. ^ LeWarne Utopias on Puget Sound 1885-1915, pp. 146-147.
  19. ^ LeWarne Utopias on Puget Sound 1885-1915, pp. 141, 152, 269.
  20. ^ LeWarne Utopias on Puget Sound 1885-1915, pp. 148, 164-165.

Publications

  • Merrie England. Social Democracy Library, No. 1. Chicago: Social Democracy of America, 1897.
  • Three in One: A Trinity of Arguments on Socialism. Social Democracy Library No. 2. Chicago: The Social Democracy, 1898.

Further reading

  • Bernard J. Brommel, "Debs's Cooperative Commonwealth Plan for Workers," Labor History, vol. 12, no. 4 (Fall 1971), pp. 560–569.

External links

  • Socialist Party page at Early American Marxism contains information on the pre-schism SDA
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