World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Poverty in Haiti

Article Id: WHEBN0031151560
Reproduction Date:

Title: Poverty in Haiti  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Haitian society, Poverty by country, LGBT history in Haiti, Deforestation in Haiti, Haitian art
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Poverty in Haiti

Slums in the area of Bas-Ravine, in the northern part of Cap-Haïtien

Poverty in Haiti affects its people in many aspects of everyday life, including housing, nutrition, education, healthcare, infant mortality rates, as well as environment.[1] Haiti has constantly been plagued with low levels of living conditions, with many Haitians moving into the capital city of Port-au-Prince in a bid to escape poverty in the more rural areas of the country. Levels of poverty in Haiti are generally regarded as among the most severe in the western hemisphere. In 2012, the gross domestic product in Haiti was estimated to be US$13.15 billion by The World Factbook, ranked 146 (out of 299 countries) in the world.[2] Based on estimates by the World Bank in 2001, the percentage of people living below the poverty line is 78%.[3]


Structural violence

Solid waste has been bought by the inhabitants of Petite-Anse (Cap-Haïtien, Haiti) to create a road and "soil", after it has decomposed.

One of the underlying problems that is creating poverty within Haiti is structural violence.[1] As defined by Medical Anthropologist Dr. Paul Farmer, structural violence is the way by which social arrangements are constructed that put specific members or groups of a population in harm's way. Such groups include females and those belonging to lower socioeconomic classes[4] Being one of the world's poorest countries, Haiti illustrates how prevailing societal frameworks perpetuate the suffering of certain individuals and communities.[5][6] Due to social factors such as racism, pollution, poor housing, and varying forms of social disparity, structural violence limits the citizens of Haiti, particularly those living in rural areas or coming from less privileged backgrounds, from receiving the necessary assistance and support to escape the poverty trap.[4] Studies have suggested that by addressing unfavorable bio-social phenomena, such as social inequalities, the impact of structural violence in perpetuating poverty can be reduced. Subsequently, improvements to the nation's standard of living and quality of life can also be attained.[4]


In 2014, Haiti was ranked the fifteenth most corrupt country in the world by [9]

Infant mortality

Haiti's infant mortality rate of 53 deaths per 1,000 live births (in 2011)[10] is a result of the poor healthcare system. The lack of a well-planned education system is the cause of low literacy rates (45%) in the country.[11]

Under age 1 (per 1,000 live births)
Year Deaths
1990 99
2009 64
2011 53
Under age 5 (per 1,000 live births)
Year Deaths
1990 143
2009 87
2011 70


Haiti ranks 59.5[12] in the Gini Coefficient index, with the richest 10% of Haitians receiving 47.83% of the nation's income, while the poorest 10% receive less than 0.9%.[13]


  1. ^ a b Sen, Paul Farmer ; foreword by Amartya (2004). Pathologies of power : health, human rights, and the new war on the poor : with a new preface by the author (2° édition. ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press.  
  2. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Haiti". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 2013-11-29. 
  3. ^ "Haiti - World Development Indicators". The World Bank. 2001. Retrieved 2013-11-29. 
  4. ^ a b c Farmer, Paul E.; Bruce Nizeye; Sara Stulac; Salmaan Keshavjee (October 2006). "Structural Violence and Clinical Medicine". PLoS Medicine 3 (10): 1686–1690.  
  5. ^ The World Bank. "Haiti Overview". The World Bank. Retrieved 20 Mar 2013. 
  6. ^ Farmer, Paul (June 2004). "An Anthropology of Structural Violence". Current Anthropology 45 (3): 305–325.  
  7. ^ "2014 Corruption Perception Index--Results". Transparency International. 2014. Retrieved 2014-12-03. 
  8. ^ Gupta, Sanjeev; Daoodi, Hamid; Alonso-Terme, Rosa (1998). "Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty?". IMF Working Papers: 4–5. 
  9. ^ Roc, Nancy (March 2009). "Haiti: The Bitter Grapes of Corruption". FRIDE. p. 8. Retrieved 2013-11-29. 
  10. ^ "At a glance: Haiti". UNICEF. Retrieved 2013-11-29.
  11. ^ "Haiti Introduction". Retrieved 2013-11-29.
  12. ^ World Resources Institute, EarthTrends Environmental Information (2000-2007)
  13. ^ Tradingeconomics – Income distribution in Haiti
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.