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Classical Mechanics


Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. Within these domains, it produces very accurate results. And thus, is one of the oldest and largest subjects in science, engineering and technology.

 
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Heat Capacity and Other Thermodynamic Properties

By: Umesh Gaur

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: Sodium chloride is the major electrolyte in most natural waters and geothermal fluids. Therefore, an accurate description of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions is the first step in developing a model to represent these systems at high temperatures and pressures, While the volumetric properties of NaCl solutions are of interest in their own right for many research, industrial, and engineering design applications, they are also important beca...

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Heat Capacity and Other Thermodynamic Properties of Linear

By: Umesh Gaur

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: This is the eighth paper in a series of discussions on the heat capacity of linear macromolecules. In the earlier papers, the heat capacity of selenium, polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene and various types of polyoxides, acrylic polymers, and other carbon backbone polymers have been analyzed. In this paper polyesters and polyamides for which heat capacity data are available have been analyzed. These are polyglywlide, poly(e-caprolactone), poly(ethylen...

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Transport Properties of Liquid and Gaseous D20 Over a Wide Range

By: N. Matsunaga

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: Since heavy water is one of the most important substances in nuclear power technology, information on the thermophysical properties of heavy water over wide ranges of temperature and pressure is needed for successful design. After the publication of the comprehensive compilation of the properties of heavy water in 1964, no comprehensive critical review of the transport properties was published for many years. Having collected large body of experimental data...

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Thermochemical Data for Gaseous Monoxides

By: J.B. Pedley

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: Under the auspices of the National Bureau of Standards Office of Standard Reference Data, and with the support of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, a program has been undertaken for the compilation and evaluation of chemical kinetic data. The program's aim is to prepare and publish, for selected gas-phase reactions, concise Data Sheets that provide, among other things, recommended rate coefficients. The adopted format, which is described in Sec. ...

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The Solubility of Nitrogen C1072And Air in Liquids

By: Rubin Battino

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: In this review, we are concerned with the solubility of nitrogen and air in most liquids for which data are available and over all temperatures and pressures. The fluids considered include pure liquids, organic and inorganic solvents, mixtures, biological fluids, and miscellaneous fluids. We did not include molten salts, alloys, metals, glasses, and slags or polymeric materials. For the systems included, there is a considerable literature at elevated pressures.

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Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities Of

By: Sharon G. Lias

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: The gas phase basicity and proton affinity of a molecule, M, are both defined in terms of the hypothetical reaction: The gas phase basicity is the negative of the free energy change associated with this reaction, while the proton affinity is the negative of the corresponding enthalpy change. Proton transfer reactions are of considerable importance in chemistry. Acid-base reactions have been studied extensively in solution for decades, but it is only in the ...

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Thermodynamic Properties of Key Organic Oxygen Compounds in the Carbon

By: Randolph C. Wilhoit

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: The general objective of this series is to collect and tabulate the best values of the equilibrium thermodynamic and thermochemical properties of pure organic compounds which have from one to four carbon atoms per molecule. The thermodynamic properties of organic oxygen compounds have been studied more extensively than those of any other element except hydrogen and carbon. The group which contains up to four carbon atoms includes the initial members of homo...

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Evaluation of the Thermodynamic Functions for Aqueous Sodium Chloride

By: E. Colin

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: Water is the world's most essential and abundant liquid for the stoichiometric mean molal ionic activity coeffiuid. Common salt is the most abundant dissolved electrolyte cient (y) for sodium chloride molality between 0.1 and 6.0maJ in ocean water, and from the seas of antiquity are derived at 25 OC.

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A Review and Evaluation of the Phase Equilibria, Liquid-Phase Heat...

By: A.J. Kidnay

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: This paper is a continuation of previous on the review, evaluation, and correlation of phase equilibria and related data on industrially important binary systems of fluids. The first system considered was methane + ethane, the second was methane -I- propane and the present work is concerned with the nitrogen + methane system. These are three of the most important systems related to the natural gas industry.

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The Homogeneous Nucleation Limits of Liquids

By: C.T. Avedisian

Technical Reference Publication

Excerpt: Significance of the Limit of Superheat. The homogeneous nucleation limit, or limit of superheat, of a liquid represents the deepest possible penetration of a liquid in the domain of metastable states. At constant pressure and composition, it is the highest temperature below the critical point a liquid can sustain without undergoing a phase transition; at constant temperature, it is the lowest pressure. The practical significance of this limit resides in the cons...

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Triplet-Triplet Absorption Spectra of Organic Molecules

By: Ian Carmichael

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: In 1971, as part of the classic volumes on organic molecular photophysics edited by the late J.B. Birks, Labhart and Heinzelmann contributed a review' which contained an extensive compilation of spectral data relevant to the absorption of light by the excited triplet state of organic molecules in condensed phases. The energies of absorption maxima in both fluid solution and in various glasses and solids were recorded together with the corresponding extincti...

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Computer Methods Applied to the Assessment of Thermochemical Data

By: S.P. Kirby

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: This paper describes the development of computer techniques for storing and manipulating thermochemical data and corresponding textual material. The methods are illustrated by their application to the assessment of data on TiCf,(g). TiCI,(l), TiCI, (cr), and TiCl,(rr) for which recommended values for standard enthalpies of formation and entropies are given. Future papers will deal with the application of these methods to the full range of transition metal halide...

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Recommended Data on the Electron Impact Ionization of Atoms and Ions

By: M.A. Lennon

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: Cross sections and rates for electron impact ionization of positive ions are needed for the development of realistic models for high-temperature plasmas and for interpretation of diagnostic observations in such plasmas. In an earlier paper (Bell et a[.') a set of recommended cross sections and rate coefficients for light atoms and ions was presented. The recommendations were based on a careful assessment of the best experimental and theoretical data availab...

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Estimation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Hydrocarbons at 298....

By: Eugene S. Domalski

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: For many years, thermodynamicists have been active in the development of numerical methods which correlate molecular structure and sub-structure with a corresponding energy contribution to a thermodynamic property. Some indication of this activity can be found by examining the 144 references at the end of this paper which primarily cover estimation methods and also identify some important reference sources of evaluated thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbo...

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The Thermal Conductivity of Nitrogen and Carbon Monoxide in the Limit

By: J. Millata

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: Much of the analytic work connected with the efficient design or optimization of industrial processes has been taken over by complex computer packages. To be effective, such computer codes must include powerful databases for the representation of the thermophysical properties of fluids that can produce accurate and reliable numerical data over the widest possible range of thermodynamic states. So far as transport properties are concerned, it is conventional...

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Octanol-Water Partition Coefficients of Simple Organic Compounds

By: James Sangster

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: A pure substance may distribute itself between two partially miscible solvents in intimate contact, and the equilibrium ratio of solute concentrations in the two phases has come to be known as the distribution coefficient or partition coefficient. In preparative organic chemistry, the use of solvents of greatly differing polarity (e.g., hydrocarbon and water) facilitates the extraction and purification of desired products. In addition, the biological activi...

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Toluene Thermophysical Properties from 178 to 800 K

By: Robert D. Goodwin

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: Some properties at coexistence again were reported in 1969 Zotov et al. reported an approximate calculation of some properties of toluene on the saturation line, and 190 C.

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Thermodynamic Properties of Nitrogen Including Liquid and Vapor Phases

By: Richard T. Jacobsen

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: -4n equation of state is presented for nitrogen which covers the full range of liquid and vapor values for temperatures from the triple-point temperature to 2000 K, and pressures to 10,000 bar. The thermodynamic property table is based on this equation of state and a function representing the ideal gas heat capacity. The equation also conforms to the Maxwell criterion, which provides for a thermodynamically consistent table of properties.

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Thermal Conductivity of Nine Poiyatomic Gases at Low Density

By: F. J. Uribe

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: Temperature-dependent dimensionless factor needed in the calculation of AzEqs. (A10) and (C6c) Planck constant, Table B1 Boltzmann constant, Table B1 mass of a molecule molecular weight Avogadro constant, Table B1 Prandtl number, Eq. (2) universal gas constant, Table B1 temperature reduced temperature, T / E short-range energy parameter of intermolecular exponential repulsion high-temperature scaling parameter, V, E Accurate correlations and predictions of ...

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A Unified Fundamental Equation for the Thermodynamic Properties of...

By: Philip G. Hill

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: One of the first methods for uniting a scaled equation of state, valid only near the critical point, with a nonsingular equation representing states not in the critical region was devised by Chapela and Rowlinson (1974) for carbon dioxide [and used by Angus, Armstrong, and de Reuck (1976) in preparing their CO, tables]. The method could be represented as a linear combination of the pressure P, produced by the simple scaling equation of Schofield and the pre...

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